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NEUROANATOMY is an annual journal of neuroanatomy and neuroscience. It is mainly published as an electronic journal in Adobe PDF format. Although all the articles' copyright holder is neuroanatomy.org, NEUROANATOMY is an open access journal. The term open access gives the right of readers to read, download, distribute, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles free of charge.
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Neuroanatomy. Year: 2008; Volume: 7
Original Article • Published online March 11th, 2008 • 427 KB
Bhatnagar M, Shukla SD.
Study demonstrates occurrence of unilateral type neurodegeneration in hippocampal sub region (CA2 and CA4) of female rats that given four hours swimming stress and unique rotational behavior. Stressed rats’ brain sections, stained with cresyl violet, passing through bregma -1.8 to -3.8 levels, demonstrated degenerative changes in the cell bodies of CA2 and CA4 hippocampal sub regions of right hemisphere. These changes were observed in 50% of rats. Reason lying behind the unilateral degeneration after exposure to swimming stress could not be explained. To our knowledge, it is the first report demonstrating unilateral hippocampal degeneration. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 1–5.
Case Report • Published online March 11th, 2008 • 215 KB
Hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. It functionally and clinically important since it is supplies most of the muscles of the tongue. Here we report the doubling of the left hypoglossal nerve. The hypoglossal nerve of the left side had two roots which pierced the dura separately and entered two hypoglossal canals and reunited in the occipital bone and emerged out of the skull as a single hypoglossal nerve. Knowledge of this anatomical variation may be important to various fields of medicine. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 6–7.
Case Report • Published online March 11th, 2008 • 358 KB
George BM, Nayak SB.
The lower part of the posterior triangle of the neck is one of the important areas of the body because of the presence of brachial plexus. The thorough knowledge of anatomy and anatomical variations in this region are important for surgeons, anesthesiologist and physiotherapists. We report here the neuromuscular variations at the lower part of the posterior triangle of the neck. In the current case, the dorsal scapular nerve made a loop around the deep branch of transverse cervical artery. There was an additional muscle arising from the first rib and getting inserted to the inner surface of the superior angle of the scapula. The long thoracic nerve pierced this additional muscle. The loop of dorsal scapular nerve around the artery may lead to neurovascular symptoms and the abnormal muscle pierced by the long thoracic nerve may cause to neuromuscular symptoms. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 8–9.
Case Report • Published online March 11th, 2008 • 221 KB
Bhat KMR, Grijavallabhan V.
During the routine dissection in the department of Anatomy, KMC, Manipal, we found a rare and unreported variation in the branching pattern of the posterior cord of brachial plexus. Normally, a single posterior cord is formed by the union of posterior divisions of the trunks of the brachial plexus. All the branches of the posterior cord arise from this single cord. Here we report that, after formation of posterior cord, the cord has divided again into two roots, and enclosed the subscapular artery. Then, these two roots fused to continue as radial nerve. In this report, we also describe the variations in the branching pattern of the posterior cord and clinical relevance of this variation. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 10–11.
Case Report • Published online March 11th, 2008 • 370 KB
McQueen AS, Butteriss D, McHanwell S, Bates D, Birchall D.
A 51-year-old man presented with 7 year slowly progressive focal tremor affecting the left hand and arm. There were no associated neurological findings and no biochemical or genetic cause could be identified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated extensive symmetrical abnormality involving the thalamus, red nuclei and associated pathways. This appearance has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. We discuss the neuroanatomy involved and the possible aetiology for the MRI abnormalities. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 12–14.
Case Report • Published online March 11th, 2008 • 247 KB
Sundaram SM, Kumar MSJ, Sethupathi BB, Nayak SR, Krishnamurthy A.
Anatomical variations of median nerve are frequent. We report a split median nerve 5 cm proximal to the flexor retinaculum. This split portion of the median nerve continued distally as common palmar digital nerve, which further divided into two proper palmar digital branches, found to be peculiar in their course and distribution. The probable diagnostic and clinical significance of this variant are discussed. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 15–16.
Brief Review • Published online March 11th, 2008 • 143 KB
This brief review focuses on historical development of the knowledge about the axon reflex and on investigations in which this reflex used to link pathophysiologic processes to symptoms of the disease state through the organization of neuronal networks. Unlike spinal reflexes, there is neither an integration center nor any synapse in the arc of the axon reflex. Receptor and effector of axon reflex are at the peripheral ends of an afferent neuron. To set the basic knowledge and major achievements we first provide a brief account of the understanding of the spinal cord in conventional reflexes. Next, recent work on specifically axon reflex and its involvement in processes such as pain, itch, bronchial asthma and dermal circulation is reviewed. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 17–19.
Technical Note • Published online March 11th, 2008 • 160 KB
In this paper, compatibility of OsiriX software with 3D visualization of neuroanatomical structures acquired from DICOM images was examined. OsiriX, as a multi-dimensional image navigation and display software, was designed for display and interpretation of multidimensional and multimodality images. This software was used in some new thesis on anatomy about 3D reconstruction and volume calculation of the intra-orbital part of the optic nerve successfully. Advantages and features of the software in 3D visualization, multidimensional image navigation and display were summarized in this brief technical note. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 20–21.
Original Article • Published online May 19th, 2008 • 520 KB
Kosif R, Aktas RG, Oztekin A.
Aloe vera [barbadensis] (Av) is widely used for both commercial and therapeutic purposes. It has been used for an array of ailments since ancient times as a medicinal plant. There are more than 360 different species of Av. Its products have been used in health foods for medical and preservative purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Av on the rat’s central nervous system; since there are limited studies on that issue. Gel form of Av is used in the study. It is commercial, preserved but otherwise untreated form of Av. Female Wistar Albino rats were divided into three study groups. Tissue specimens from cerebrum, cerebellum, hippocampus and ventricular area were processed for the microscopic examination. All sections from each group were stained with hematoxylin eosin and cresyl violet. Our results indicate that Av did not have any clear toxic effects on both neurons and glial cells of the central nervous system in different areas. Cytoplasmic features of the neurons, Nissle bodies, axonal hillock, and nuclei of neurons were the same after the treatment. However; the relationship between the Purkinje cells and the surrounding cerebellar tissue was decreased in the treated group. The other important finding was the change of ependymal cells at the ventricular zone: The number and the height of these cells were obviously increased. The single layered epithelium changed into the stratified epithelium in certain areas. It was also evident that microvilli and the cilia on the apical side of these cell increased dramatically. The capillaries in the region of choroid plexus were also dramatically increased. We believe that further studies related with these morphological changes will be helpful to understand the mechanism(s) of the similar transformation of the cells in different conditions. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 22–27.
Case Report • Published online May 19th, 2008 • 296 KB
Vollala VR, Potu BK, Gorantla VR, Reddy S.
During educational dissections some rare anatomic variations were encountered in the left upper limb of a human adult male cadaver. The variations were unilateral and included the median nerve presenting three roots, two from the lateral and one from the medial cord of the brachial plexus, communication between median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve in the distal half of the arm, the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve showing a loop and the brachial vein passing between the medial and lateral roots of median nerve to drain into the axillary vein. The abnormal root of median nerve coming from the lateral cord had a very close oblique course over the distal part of the axillary artery. These kinds of variations are more prone to injury in radical neck dissections and in other surgical operations of the axilla. The very close course of the unusual branch with the axillary artery may lessen the blood supply of the upper extremity by compressing the vessel. The communicating branch from median nerve to the musculocutaneous nerve can be explained on the basis of its embryologic development. Injury to such a variant median nerve in the proximal arm may lead to paresthesia along the preaxial border of the forearm, weakness of elbow flexion, in addition to other manifestations of median nerve injury. The clinical implications as well as the possible clinical symptoms resulting from these anomalies are discussed. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 28–32.
Original Article • Published online May 19th, 2008 • 192 KB
Morani AS, Bodhankar SL.
Direct injury to a peripheral nerve causes an increase in free oxygen radicals, which can lead to tissue damage. Vitamin E is a major antioxidant used clinically and its study in nerve injury models has not been encountered in the literature. The objective was to study the neuroprotective actions of vitamin E acetate 50 mg/kg by using partial sciatic nerve ligation and sciatic nerve crush injury models in wistar rats. The parameters used were thermal hyperalgesia, motor function test and motor nerve conduction velocity. A steady improvement in thermal hyperalgesia was seen in vitamin E treated animals on day 8th (7.96±0.18 s) and day 7th (8.26±0.15 s) in the models of partial sciatic nerve ligation and sciatic nerve crush injury respectively. There was a reduction in pain which was observed behaviorally in motor function test in both the models and also was observed an improvement in motor nerve conduction velocity of vitamin E treated animals which steadily increased on 15th day (31.59±1.41 m/s) and 30th day (39.29±2.07 m/s). These findings indicate that vitamin E acetate has a promising neuroprotective action in treating hyperalgesia and also improving conduction velocity in the model of nerve ligation and nerve crush injury in rats. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 33–37.
Case Report • Published online May 19th, 2008 • 195 KB
Girijavallabhan V, Bhat KMR.
Ciliary ganglion is one of the peripheral parasympathetic ganglion situated near the apex of the orbit between lateral rectus and optic nerve. During routine dissection of a human cadaver for the medical students at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India, we found a rare and unreported case, where, the ciliary ganglion was placed between the medial rectus and the optic nerve, lateral to the ophthalmic artery. In this report we also discuss the course, relations of the branches/roots of the ganglion, histological study and the clinical relevance of this positional variation. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 38–40.
Case Report • Published online May 19th, 2008 • 170 KB
George BM, Nayak SB.
Knowledge of variation in the pattern of muscle insertion and possible neurovascular entrapment is important for orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons and physiotherapists. We found a variation in the insertion pattern of brachialis and entrapped median nerve and brachial artery due to the superficial position of the muscle, in relation to the neurovascular bundle. The brachialis was found to have an additional thick slip from the distal third of the muscle. The accessory slip partly merged with the origin of superficial flexors of the forearm and partly inserted to the medial aspect of olecranon process. The median nerve and brachial artery passed under this additional slip of brachialis. The abnormality reported here might result in neurovascular compression symptoms in upper limb and some mechanical advantages or disadvantage in the flexion of elbow joint. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 41–42.
Case Report • Published online May 19th, 2008 • 167 KB
Cherian SB, Nayak SB, Somayaji N, Bhat SM.
Hypoplasia of white matter in the right hemisphere of cerebrum was observed during routine dissection for undergraduate medical students. The lateral ventricle on that half was enlarged and the enlargement was associated with a very thin layer of corpus callosum forming the roof of the lateral ventricles. The cavity of lateral ventricle also showed a few septa traversing through it. The interventricular foramen was enlarged. The left hemisphere did not have any abnormalities in its ventricle. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 43–44.
Case Report • Published online May 19th, 2008 • 193 KB
Anomalies of the branches of internal carotid artery can lead to serious clinical conditions like stroke. We report here an anomalous pattern of the cerebral arteries. The left internal carotid artery was smaller than the right and it continued as middle cerebral artery instead of dividing into anterior and middle cerebral arteries. It also failed to give the posterior communicating artery. The right internal carotid artery was almost double the size compared to the left internal carotid artery. It gave rise to a common trunk which divided into right and left anterior cerebral arteries. The knowledge of these anomalous arteries may be useful for neurosurgeons, radiologists and clinicians in general. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 45–46.
Technical Note • Published online May 19th, 2008 • 178 KB
There is numerous and advanced methods for measurements on digital radiological images. However, there is a shortness of digital measurement methods in gross anatomy. In this note, a digital photogrammetric method for the use in gross neuroanatomical studies is discussed. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 47–48.
Original Article • Published online October 31th, 2008 • 458 KB
Aguiar PH, Tahara A, Franca DB, de Santana Junior PA, Becerra ADCR, Pierbon M.
Of 15 fresh cadavers, we studied the pontomedullary junction regarding the arterial source and variations, in the called Vicq d’Azyr foramen. This small triangular depression at the lower boundary of the pons between the pyramids that marks the upper limit of the anterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata is the foramen caecum medullae oblongatae, or Vicq d`Azyr foramen. The results showed a basilar artery of diameter of 6.22 mm, 12.37 perforators to the mentioned area, mainly having their origin from basilar artery. The importance of studying this area is to better understand the neurovascular diseases of brain stem and serve as a guide for neurosurgeons operating in this vital area. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 49–51.
Case Report • Published online October 31th, 2008 • 364 KB
The occurrence of Wormian (sutural) bones in the human skull is quite common. We found ten Wormian bones in the lambdoid suture in an adult Indian skull. Knowledge of this variation is very important for anthropologists, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons. A similar case has not been reported yet. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 52–53.
Original Article • Published online October 31th, 2008 • 2.7 MB
Ashwini CA, Shubha R, Jayanthi KS.
The circle of Willis in animals can be used to create models that simulate man in order to conduct experiments and trials. For this, a detailed comparative morphological study becomes essential. The objectives of the present study are to note the configuration of circle of Willis, measure the diameter of vessels forming it, and observe for variations. The study included ten brain specimens each of cow, sheep, goat, pig and man. The internal carotid artery formed an integral part but the posterior cerebral artery was not so in the animal specimens studied when compared to that of man. The anterior communicating artery was in the form of network in the animals while it was a single vessel in man. The posterior communicating artery was proportionately larger in animals than in man. The basilar artery was seen to originate from the circle of Willis in the ruminants. Absence of anterior communicating artery was the most common anomaly noted among the animals studied (10-20%). In man, the anomalies were varied in both anterior (50%) and posterior (80%) halves of the circle. The reason for the above differences noted and for anomalies occurring more in humans can be attributed to presence or absence of contribution of the vertebro-basilar arterial system to the circle of Willis and its consequences. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 54–65.
Original Article • Published online December 17th, 2008 • 1.4 MB
Vasovic L, Jovanovic I, Ugrenovic S, Stojanov D, Radovanovic Z.
Study investigates and compares the reliability, of basilar bifurcation geometry obtained by microdissection, conventional geometrical models of the fetal cerebral arterial circles (CACs) and, the results of current angiographic and experimental studies on adult humans present in the accessible literature. Hundred CACs were selected from 200 fetal brains. All fetuses were free from any macroscopically visible malformations. The lengths and outer diameters of precommunicating parts of the posterior cerebral arteries (P1s), as well as D1, D2 and D3 distances in each of the CACs were measured with an ocular micrometer. The construction of CAC models and measurement of basilar bifurcation angle were performed on the paper with conventional instruments. Basilar bifurcation angle ranged from 35 to 175 degrees. Almost two thirds of the cases had the angle larger than 90 degrees. The P1 length did not influence on average basilar bifurcation angle. Perforating branches originated from basilar bifurcation in 7.3% of the cases; the oculomotor nerve had direct contact with the basilar bifurcation in 2.9% of 68 fetuses. It may be freely concluded that there is ‘copying’ of fetal basilar bifurcation vascular geometry into the adult pattern and, vice versa. Basilar bifurcation angle represents predominant form of bifurcation, and this led us to assume that it represents as a marker of optimal vascular geometry, and the presence of aneurysms might lead to the basilar bifurcation angle deformation more frequently in cases having an acute basilar bifurcation angle. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 66–71.
Case Report • Published online December 17th, 2008 • 808 KB
Rao TR, Vanishree, Kanyan PS, Rao S.
Awareness in the variations of psoas major muscle and iliacus muscle is useful guide for both in studies of human anatomy and in clinical practice today. It is of significant practical importance for the surgeons and radiologist, to know the form, degree of severity and range of such changes. Images of posterior abdominopelvic wall with such variations may lead to confusion in interpretation. The knowledge of relations of this variation with neighboring nerves, blood vessels and other structures are important for an accurate diagnosis and to prevent further surgical complications during routine surgery. In our routine dissections with the purpose of preparation of the teaching and museum specimens, it was observed that in one of the elderly Indian male cadaver showed bilateral variant slip of iliacus muscle having two bellies; in addition the femoral nerve also showed variation in its course. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 72–75.
Case Report • Published online December 17th, 2008 • 308 KB
de Leon AMP, Resendiz HPA, Santos GL, Alberto CCE.
Anatomical variations in the circle of Willis are every day findings in neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. A clear understanding of these variants is important since they could have serious clinical consequences if not considered properly. In a carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) we found a bilateral angiographic variation of the feeding of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory by an unusual anterior communicating artery (ACoA). Our first impression was that a fragment of the atherosclerotic plaque occluded the ACA, but the patient did not show any neurological deficit. After evaluation of the contra lateral common carotid artery (CCA) we realized that we were facing an uncommon angiographic variation of the ACoA. These kind of anomalies must be recognized during a functional cerebral angiography in order to evaluate hemispheric collateral flow properly and to understand paradoxical clinical manifestations of occlusive diseases. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 76–78.
Case Report • Published online December 17th, 2008 • 484 KB
Shankar N, Veeramani R.
The sural nerve is usually formed by the medial sural cutaneous nerve and peroneal communicating nerve, branches of the tibial nerve and the common peroneal nerve, respectively. During routine dissection of the left leg of an elderly male cadaver the sural nerve was seen to arise entirely from the common peroneal nerve. The sural nerve on this side was found to have an intramuscular course through the gastrocnemius. To our knowledge this is the first case report of the sural nerve arising entirely from the peroneal communicating nerve and also having an intramuscular course through the gastrocnemius. On the right side, it was observed that the sural nerve was formed in the popliteal fossa and had contributions from both the medial sural cutaneous nerve and the peroneal communicating nerve. The sural nerve is clinically important as it is commonly used for biopsies, nerve conduction studies and as a convenient source for nerve grafting. In all these procedures, the formation and course of the sural nerve in the calf assumes great significance. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 79–82.
Original Article • Published online December 17th, 2008 • 1.2 MB
Chou PC, Tatar I, Bilgen M.
In vivo preclinical imaging of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodent models is sought after for obtaining clinically relevant neuropatholocial information in translational research. This paper uses multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate spinal cords that were injured mildly at the thoracic T11 level in six C57BL/6 female mice. On postinjury days 1 and 3, the mice were subjected to neurobehavioral evaluations proceeded by high resolution MRI scans. The MRI protocols included proton density weighted, T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. The scans on day 3, the injured cords were evaluated using postmortem histological analysis. The neurobehavioral tests indicated that injured mouse developed functional deficits in hindlimbs that worsen slowly from day 1 to day 3. Microanatomical images from these days depicted slight variations in the intensity patterns within the injured SC parenchyma. These changes suggested gradually progressive neuropathology. The quantitative diffusion tensor measurements showed steady deterioration of the neurostructure, prominently in the dorsal region which received the mechanical impact. The injured cords examined with different stains depicted gross tissue morphology that matched the anatomical images and allowed interpreting the neurostructural data. At the injury site, changes in the grey and white matters and neuronal cell swelling were evident and supported the diffusion measurements, but the fibrotic tissue deposition was minimal. The results together demonstrated the value of evaluating injured mouse SC using in vivo MRI and how this may potentially play an important role in characterizing the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy aimed at improving the outcome from SCI. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: 83–92.
Abstracts • Published online July 14th, 2008 • 861 KB
No author available.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2008; 7: Supplement 1.
Table of Contents [Archives]
Year: 2011; Volume: 10 • In this volume there is 1 article.
Year: 2010; Volume: 9 • In this volume there are 3 articles.
Year: 2009; Volume: 8 • In this volume there are 11 articles.
Year: 2008; Volume: 7 • In this volume there are 24 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2007; Volume: 6 • In this volume there are 26 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2006; Volume: 5 • In this volume there are 19 articles and 2 supplement.
Year: 2005; Volume: 4 • In this volume there are 21 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2004; Volume: 3 • In this volume there are 18 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2003; Volume: 2 • In this volume there are 14 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2002; Volume: 1 • In this volume there are 9 articles.