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NEUROANATOMY is an annual journal of neuroanatomy and neuroscience. It is mainly published as an electronic journal in Adobe PDF format. Although all the articles' copyright holder is neuroanatomy.org, NEUROANATOMY is an open access journal. The term open access gives the right of readers to read, download, distribute, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles free of charge.
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Neuroanatomy. Year: 2003; Volume: 2
Editorial • Published online December 27th, 2003 • 41 KB
Aldur MM, Celik HH.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 1.
Review Article • Published online January 31th, 2003 • 196 KB
The tracing of neural pathways continues to be an important concern for neuroanatomy. During the second half of the nineteenth century, at a time when the foundations of neuroanatomy were being established, tracing pathways often required laborious dissections by hand. Then, neuroanatomy experienced a methodological revolution in the beginning of the 1970s with the development of powerful techniques based on the axonal transport of tracers. Axonal tracing of neuronal pathways using anterograde and retrograde transport is available. Axonal transport can be combined with immunohistochemistry for the neurochemical characterization of specific neuronal pathways. After tracing, tissue is collected following appropriate survival time for the tracer to be transported. Immunohistochemical methods, virus immunolabeling or autoradiography at the axon terminals are used for expressing the tracers. Retrograde axonal transport is used by certain viruses (e.g., herpes and pseudorabies virus) to spread from one neuron to the next in a chain of neurons (transneuronal transfer). It is also the method whereby toxins (e.g., tetanus) are transported from the periphery into the central nervous system. This has led to the idea that viral tracing may be an important way as a possible gene delivery method for the gene therapy in nervous system diseases. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 2-5.
Technical Note • Published online February 24th, 2003 • 132 KB
Adiguzel E, Duzcan SE, Akdogan I, Tufan AC.
In this study, a simple low cost method to be used in morphometric studies on microscopic anatomical structures is described. Increasing need for stereological methods depend on laboratories equipped with specially designed devices to do this type of studies. However, high-technical automated and/or computerized systems increase the cost of these studies there by limiting them to a small number of institutions. Here we suggest a simple two dimensional measurement technique that can be adopted to any laboratory. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 6-8.
Case Report • Published online March 26th, 2003 • 320 KB
Oguz B, Karli Oguz K, Akpinar E, Cila A, Sain Guven G.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a progressive subacute demyelinating disease caused by neurotropic papova virus, usually in immunocompromised patients. As the number of cases of AIDS increases so close the incidence of PML, the ability to diagnose PML noninvasively is of increasingly importance. A case of PML is presented with conventional magnetic resonance and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) performed at two consecutive months. Conventional MR imagings were performed on a 0.5 T and DWI was performed on 3 T scanner at follow-up. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 9-12.
Case Report • Published online March 27th, 2003 • 268 KB
Mas N, Ozeksi P, Ozdemir B, Kapakin S, Sargon MF, Celik HH, Yener N.
In a 62-year-old male cadaver, high division of the sciatic nerve was observed bilaterally. Additionally, on the right side of the same cadaver, the common peroneal nerve passed just inferior to the piriformis muscle and the tibial nerve emerged inferior to the gemellus superior, between the gemellus superior and obturator internus muscles. Then, both of the nerves coursed posterior to the obturator internus, gemellus inferior and quadratus femoris muscles. The gemellus superior muscle, lying just posterior to the tibial nerve may cause to the symptoms of sciatica, because of the compression of the tibial nerve between the gemellus superior and obturator internus muscles. This pathology may lead to a new syndrome; the gemellus superior syndrome, just like the piriformis syndrome. As a conclusion, in the etiology and pathogenesis of sciatica, in addition to the priformis muscle, the abnormalities of the other gluteal external rotator muscles of the hip joint must also be taken into consideration by the clinicians. MR imaging of this region will be very helpful for the accurate diagnosis of this type of pathologies. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 13-15.
Original Article • Published online April 25th, 2003 • 328 KB
Okutan O, Kaptanoglu E, Solaroglu I, Beskonakli E, Tekdemir I.
Posterior transpedicular screw fixation has been widely used for the management of unstable lumbosacral spine caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, congenital defects and neoplasms. Knowledge of the pedicle diameters of the first sacral vertebra is crucial for safe placement of the screws. Thirty dry sacral specimens (18 male, 12 female) were used for study of the first sacral pedicles. Cephalad-caudad height, anterior-posterior width, transverse and sagittal angles, and depth of S1 pedicle were presented. The mean width of the pedicles were estimated as 22.5±2.6 mm and 22.2±2.8 mm; the heights were 13.6±2.3 mm and 13.6±2.7 mm; the depths were 50.7±3.7 mm and 51.8±3.5 mm for female and male, respectively. The mean transverse angles were 43°±2.3 and 41°±2.2; the sagittal angles were 19°±2.9 and 19°±3.7 for female and male, respectively. The depth and the angle of screw trajectory is as important as entrance point for pedicular screw placement to the S1 to avoid injury to the vascular structures anteriorly and nerve roots medially. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 16-19.
Meeting Report • Published online April 28th, 2003 • 32 KB
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 20-21.
Case Report • Published online June 16th, 2003 • 165 KB
Gok B, Kaptanoglu E, Solaroglu I, Okutan O, Beskonakli E.
Cystic lesions of the parasellar region are not uncommon and masquerade as a tumor both radiologically and clinically. True intrasellar arachnoid cysts are rare lesions and can easily be confused with intrasellar pituitary neoplasms, craniopharyngiomas, Rathke’s cleft cysts, or even empty sella. The preoperative and peroperative distinction is obviously important because of the different treatment strategies and different prognosis. A 44-years-old woman with presenting symptoms of headache and decreased visual acuity with the initial diagnosis of either Rathke’s cleft cyst or intrasellar arachnoid cyst is reported. The evaluations for differential diagnosis, commonly encountered pathological entities, treatment modalities and pathogenesis of intrasellar arachnoid cysts were discussed. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 22-24.
Original Article • Published online June 26th, 2003 • 145 KB
Ozdogmus O, Saka E, Tulay C, Gurdal E, Uzun I, Cavdar S.
The ossification of ligamentous structures in various part of the body may result in clinical problems. The osseous interclinoid ligament is an underestimated structure in the middle cranial fossa. Early studies on the interclinoid ligament has been conducted on either dry skull, fixed adult / fetus cadavers. The present study states data on fresh autopsy cases. The frequency of ossification of the interclinoid ligament were investigated on 50 autopsy cases bilaterally. Bilaterally complete ossification of interclinoid ligament was found in only three male autopsy cases (6%). The length of the interclinoid ligament was measured 8.95 mm ± 0.92 on the left side and 9.20 mm ± 0.87 on the right side. Statistical analysis showed no correlation between age, side and frequency of ossification of the interclinoid ligament. The ligamentous or bony interclinoid connections have important neuronal and vascular relations and are both clinically and surgically important. The knowledge of detailed anatomy of the interclinoid ligament can increase the success of diagnostic evaluation and surgical approaches to the region. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 25-27.
Original Article • Published online September 3rd, 2003 • 1.5 MB
Kanno T, Kiya N, Sunil MV.
This article presents the microsurgical anatomy of jugular foramen through the retroauricular, transmastoid infralabyrinthine approach. This method is easier than the classical infratemporal approach and provides better exposure for the cranial nerves reaching the neck. Detailed steps of infralabyrinthine, transcervico-mastoid approach are demonstrated using cadaveric dissection, along with description of relevant microsurgical anatomy of this region. This is a less complex and lesser time-consuming approach to the jugular foramen region, which can be combined with several other exposures depending on the extension of tumour. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 28-34.
Original Article • Published online November 8th, 2003 • 290 KB
Murshed KA, Ziylan T, Seker M, Cicekcibasi AE, Acikgozoglu S.
Since the development of MRI techniques, many neuroanatomical studies of normal brain growth and atrophy have been reported. Investigations of aging effects on the brain stem and cerebellum are important, not only to understand normal aging process, but also for comparative study of the pathophysiology of degenerative brain disorders. Sex differences in gross cerebellar neuroanatomy have been observed in several studies. In this study, our purpose was to assess the sex differences and the age-related morphological changes of the brain stem and the cerebellar vermis on midsagittal MRIs. According to radiologists’ reports, midsagittal MRIs of 120 normal individuals were evaluated in this study. There were 50 males and 70 females. By tracing the outline contour of the cerebellar vermis and the brain stem, both brain regions were drawn in a transparent paper, scaled for the real size and saved in the computer. Calculation of the areas of both regions was performed by utilizing NETCAD for Windows program, and the collected data were statistically analysed by using SPSS software. Students’s t test was applied for gender comparisons. To determine the associations between age and both areas, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. Significant sex difference was found in the brain stem area favouring males (p<0.05) whereas no significant difference was recorded in the cerebellar vermis area. Non-significant age-associated decrease in brain stem and cerebellar vermis areas were found. The age-related changes in the brain stem and cerebellar vermis remains speculative, though some authors suggest a selective vulnerability of specific posterior fossa structures to the effects of aging and sex. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 35-38.
Original Article • Published online December 17th, 2003 • 141 MB
Bilge O, Ozer MA, Govsa F.
The diagnosis and therapy of the tarsal tunnel syndrome, various surgical procedures at tarsal region and especially tibial nerve blocks requires a well understanded relationship and anatomy of the tibial nerve. For this purpose medial tarsal regions of 50 feet of embalmed human cadavers were investigated. The bifurcation level of the tibial nerve, the distance of the medial and lateral plantar nerves to the tip of the medial malleolus and the medial tubercle of calcaneus and the diameters of the nerves at the branching point were measured. The bifurcation point of the posterior tibial artery was also noted. We classified the bifurcations of the tibial nerve and posterior tibial artery as type I, II and III respect to the reference line between medial malleolus and calcaneus. While type I was the common type for tibial nerve (n= 42, 84%), type III was common for posterior tibial artery (n=23, 46%). Knowledge of the variations in locations of bifurcation level of the tibial nerve and the posterior tibial artery may prevent to damage any neurovascular structure during some procedures like pin insertion and nerve blocks. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 39-41.
Book Review • Published online December 23rd, 2003 • 356 KB
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 42.
Announcements • Published online December 23rd, 2003 • 45 KB
No author available.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: 43.
Abstracts • Published online April 21th, 2003 • 592 KB
No author available.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2003; 2: Supplement 1.
Table of Contents [Archives]
Year: 2011; Volume: 10 • In this volume there is 1 article.
Year: 2010; Volume: 9 • In this volume there are 3 articles.
Year: 2009; Volume: 8 • In this volume there are 11 articles.
Year: 2008; Volume: 7 • In this volume there are 24 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2007; Volume: 6 • In this volume there are 26 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2006; Volume: 5 • In this volume there are 19 articles and 2 supplement.
Year: 2005; Volume: 4 • In this volume there are 21 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2004; Volume: 3 • In this volume there are 18 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2003; Volume: 2 • In this volume there are 14 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2002; Volume: 1 • In this volume there are 9 articles.