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NEUROANATOMY is an annual journal of neuroanatomy and neuroscience. It is mainly published as an electronic journal in Adobe PDF format. Although all the articles' copyright holder is neuroanatomy.org, NEUROANATOMY is an open access journal. The term open access gives the right of readers to read, download, distribute, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles free of charge.
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Neuroanatomy. Year: 2005; Volume: 4
Editorial • Published online December 30th, 2005 • 128 KB
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 1.
Original Article • Published online April 15th, 2005 • 460 KB
The parasellar dura mater should be distinguished from the adjacent dura because the cavernous sinus, the internal carotid artery, and certain cranial nerves passes through it. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the difference between the structure of the parasellar and the adjacent dura mater. The study was held with 80 fetuses at a gestational age of 20-40 weeks. Microdissection and histological investigation was performed without decalcification. The results are as follows: The meningeal layer of the parasellar dura mater was thicker from that of the adjacent dura, but their periosteal layers had similar thickness. The meningeal layer of the cranial dura mater had a multilayered structure, and also two types of lamellas have been found, the compact and the loose lamellas. Four compact and four loose lamellas of the meningeal layer of the parasellar dura mater have been shown by dissection and histological method. Through these lamellas are passing the cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2, V3, VI and their vessels. Through the fourth loose lamellae pass the parasellar portion of the internal carotid artery. In the third and fourth loose lamellas there are venous spaces arranged around the internal carotid artery, which form the cavernous sinus. The compact lamellas are thinner but firmer in comparison to loose lamellas. On the other hand, three compact and three loose lamellas have been found in the meningeal layer of the adjacent dura mater. Neither evident vessels nor nerves have been noticed between these lamellas. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 2–7.
Case Report • Published online April 15th, 2005 • 156 KB
Vollala VR, Bhat SM, Nayak S, Raghunathan D, Samuel VP, Rodrigues V, Mathew JG.
Ansa cervicalis is a loop of nerves in the carotid triangle of neck. Its upper root is the descending branch of hypoglossal nerve, which joins the lower root that is formed by branches from the second and third cervical nerves. The ansa cervicalis nerve formation is relatively complex, as its course and location along the great vessels of the neck vary. In the present case, on the left side of the neck of a 40-year-old male cadaver the upper root of ansa cervicalis came from vagus nerve. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 8–9.
Original Article • Published online July 13rd, 2005 • 255 KB
Sen F, Ulubay H, Ozeksi P, Sargon MF, Tascioglu AB.
In this study, the morphometric measurements of the interthalamic adhesion and thalamus using MRI with regard to age and sex was assessed. Additionally, the incidence of the absence of the interthalamic adhesion was analysed. 161 patients (100 females and 61 males) without neuropathological changes and symptoms were included in this study. In the 60 and above age group, the transverse length of the interthalamic adhesion was measured as longest, while the vertical length was measured as the shortest. The anteroposterior and vertical lengths decreased gradually correlated with ageing, but the decrease in the anteroposterior length was not found related to the changes in thalamus sizes. No connection was found between the age groups and transverse, vertical and anteroposterior lengths of the thalamus. In the examination of the mean values of thalamus size with regard to age groups, the vertical length of thalamus was found to be shortest in the 60 and over years group. When investigating the mean values of the interthalamic adhesion size with regard to sex, the transverse length was found longer in males than in females. The vertical and anteroposterior lengths, however, were longer in females. When the mean values of the sizes of the thalami were evaluated according to sex, it was found that the transverse length was longer in males. The vertical and anteroposterior lengths were similar in both sexes. Additionally, the interthalamic adhesion was absent in 14 patients. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 10–12.
Case Report • Published online July 20th, 2005 • 200 KB
Kocabiyik N, Yalcin B, Yazar F, Ozan H.
During the educational gross anatomy dissections of the axilla and brachium of a 50-year-old male cadaver in our laboratory, we encountered a neuroanatomical variation. The lateral cord of brachial plexus and its branches, had a different configuration. The nerves forming the letter ‘M’ was normal right under the pectoralis minor muscle. The musculocutaneous nerve passed through the coracobrachialis muscle, and gave branches to biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. The anomalous branch of the musculocutaneous nerve originated approximately at the mid point level of the brachial region, and 2.8 cm above the distal end of deltoid tuberosity. It coursed inferiorly between the biceps and brachialis muscles about 12.6 cm and joined the median nerve 5.6 cm superior to the interepicondillary line. Giving its accessory branch and the nerve to the biceps brachii and brachialis muscle, the musculocutaneus nerve coursed normally as a lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. This variation has clinical importance in median nerve lesions and its distinctive diagnosis. Lesions of the median nerve, If lesion was proximal to this accessory branches, muscles and cutaneous innervations related to this branch was normal. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 13–15.
Case Report • Published online July 20th, 2005 • 142 KB
Kahilogullari G, Tuna H, Aydin Z, Vural A, Attar A, Deda H.
Caudal regression syndrome is a congenital syndrome that presents with pathology of spinal tract migration during the embryologic period. In this paper, we report a 16–year-old caudal regression syndrome case. This syndrome is very rare, especially after the childhood period. In this patient, caudal regression syndrome was demonstrated by imaging techniques. The patient was planned to be followed without operation. Treatment methods and the follow- up period in caudal regression syndrome are discussed. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 16–17.
Original Article • Published online July 29th, 2005 • 254 KB
Rao KGM, Rao SM, Rao SG.
Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were given different doses of fresh leaf juice of Centella asiatica (CeA) orally for different periods of time. These rats were then subjected to spatial learning (T- Maze) and passive avoidance tests along with the age matched normal and saline control rats. The results showed improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in neonatal rats treated with higher doses. These results indicate that treatment with CeA fresh leaf juice during growth spurt period of neonatal rats enhances memory retention. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 18–23.
Review Article • Published online July 29th, 2005 • 117 KB
The vestibular system is one of the most complex systems of the human brain. A very small peripheral organ in the inner ear, the labyrinth, forms the peripheral receptor. This receptor forms connections with centers at all levels within the central nervous system. These centers in turn, will project back to vestibular structures in the brain stem who will control the geography of the body providing balance and an accuracy in visual movements as well as posture and gait. This review aims to give the readers a brief overview as to what the vestibular system is; its related structures and defined anatomical pathways. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 24–27.
Case Report • Published online August 8th, 2005 • 282 KB
Auluck A, Ahsan A, Pai KM, Shetty C.
Anatomical variations in the known pattern and coarse of inferior alveolar nerve are of considerable interest to a dentist. We report three cases, two paediatric cases with bifid canals and a case of 20-year-old female patient with trifid mandibular nerve canal and discuss in brief about the development of mandibular nerve canal. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 28–30.
Original Article • Published online August 9th, 2005 • 130 KB
Ulucam E, Mesut R, Gokce N.
The writer of the first pictorial Turkish Anatomy handwritten book (Tesrih-i ebdan ve Tercuman-i kibale-i feylesufan) is Sirvanlı Semseddin Itaki. In our study, we aimed to review the neuroanatomy topics in his book, and to show the relationship between the book and the current anatomy knowledge that we have today. One of the main characteristic of the book is the availability of numerous illustrated explanations. Itaki studied neuroanatomy in two parts in his book. He considered peripheral and cranial nerves in the common structure of organ related structures in the book. He considered the topic, cerebrum in internal organs. He combined the illustrations and schemes he used for considering the neuroanatomy topics with pretty good and explanatory notes. Different sides were seen in addition to similarities to nowadays knowledge. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 31–34.
Case Report • Published online August 11th, 2005 • 173 KB
Vollala VR, Raghunathan D, Rodrigues V.
Entrapment of a peripheral nerve may lead to painful tingling, numbness and weakness. These entrapment or compressive neuropathies are important and wide spread debilitating clinical problems. During a routine dissection of an adult male cadaver we found median artery arising from the ulnar artery and piercing the median nerve. This variation may be clinically important because symptoms of median nerve compression arising from similar variations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome. We also observed an accessory belly of abductor digiti minimi muscle. The accessory belly was found to take origin from the deep forearm fascia, traversed Guyon’s canal superficial to the ulnar nerve and vessels to reach the hypothenar eminence. Its course through Guyon’s canal could be a cause for ulnar tunnel syndrome. The ulnar nerve trunk innervated the muscle. Accessory fasciculi of the hypothenar muscles have been involved in vascular and nerve compressions. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 35–36.
Case Report • Published online August 11th, 2005 • 194 KB
Nayak S, Somayaji N, Vollala VR, Raghunathan D, Rodrigues V, Samuel VP, Alathady Malloor P.
Brachial plexus is the plexus of nerves that supplies the upper limb. Variations in the origin and distribution of the branches of brachial plexus are common but variation in the roots and trunks are very rare. Here, we report one of such rare variations in the formation of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. In this case, the upper trunk was formed by the union of ventral rami of C5, C6 and C7 nerves. The middle trunk was absent and lower trunk was normal. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 37–38.
Case Report • Published online October 26th, 2005 • 323 KB
Nayak S, Vollala VR, Raghunathan D.
Atlas is the first cervical vertebra. It does not have a body like other cervical vertebrae. It forms ellipsoidal synovial joints with the condyles of the occipital bone. Rarely, it gets occipitalized, where the condyles of the occipital bone fuse with the lateral masses of the atlas vertebra. In this article, a total fusion of the atlas vertebra has been reported and the knowledge of such a fusion may be of importance for radiologists, anesthesiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons because skeletal abnormalities at the craniocervical junction may result in sudden unexpected death. It can result in dysphagia, disarthria or torticollis because of compression of cranial nerves. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 39–40.
Case Report • Published online November 14th, 2005 • 178 KB
Paval J, Vollala VR, Nayak S.
During the routine dissection we found an anomalous muscle in the popliteal fossa bilaterally in a male cadaver. This muscle had tendinous origin from the lateral and posterior intermuscular septum of the thigh as separate slips. These two slips united in front of the sciatic nerve and formed a narrow muscular belly which enclosed the sciatic nerve and the tibial nerve in its downward course and then inserted in to both the heads of gastrocnemius muscle. Sciatic entrapment in the popliteal region is uncommon and in this report we discuss the possible nerve entrapment due to the aforesaid kind of muscle variants which may confuse the surgeons. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 41–42.
Original Article • Published online November 29th, 2005 • 736 KB
Bayat M, Hasanzadeh GR, Barzroodipour M, Javadi M.
Recent investigations show that protein malnutrition alters the structure and function of some areas of the hippocampal formation. We investigated therefore the effect of protein malnutrition on thalamic projections to the CA1 hippocampal area. In this study, the efferent projections from the thalamus to hippocampus in rat by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) neural tract tracing was investigated in two groups. The control group was fed with regular diet (18% protein) whereas the study group was fed with low protein diet (8% protein). In the control group we found that the whole anterior thalamic nuclei and nucleus reuniens send projections to the CA1 hippocampal region. Among these nuclei, the anteroventral nucleus (AV) had the highest amount of labelled neurons which sent projection to the CA1 hippocampal region. Anterior thalamus projected to both hippocampus. Number of HRP labelled neurons in the contralateral thalamus were less than the ipsilateral thalamus. As a result of the influence of low protein diet, efferent projection from the anterior thalamus and nucleus reuniens to the CA1 region of hippocampus had decreased (p<0.05) in the study group. The reason may be due to reduction of neuronal activity of thalamus and hippocampal formation under the influence of protein restriction or the affected progression of developmental programmes controlling synaptogenesis. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 43–48.
Original Article • Published online December 2nd, 2005 • 212 KB
Ozdemir MB, Akdogan I, Adiguzel E, Yonguc N.
The aim of this study is to investigate the normal three dimensional (3D) shape of the ventricular system of rat brain. The shape and volume of ventricles can be correlated with clinical or other characteristics of illness. Recently, many diagnostic imaging techniques allow to get the 3D images of anatomical structures easily. So it is possible to determine the correlation between subjects and pattern of the structures. In this study, we constructed a 3D model of the rat ventricles and their related structures. It is possible to say that, ventricular system of rat brain was similar to the human’s completely. Understanding such patterns may eventually help to improve rat experiments’ vision. Furthermore, these 3D models can be used for virtual animations and stereotaxic trials in further studies. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 49–51.
Case Report • Published online December 16th, 2005 • 274 KB
Gok HB, Ayberk G, Tosun H, Seckin Z.
The progressive course of spinal dysraphism has not yet been understood. Adult patients with spinal dysraphisms may give some evidences about the clinical progression of the malformations. In the present study we discussed a 48 years old patient with meningocele who has developed adult onset of impairment of sacral functions. The radiological, electrophysiological and urodynamic evaluations and pathophysiology of the adult onset of sypmtoms are also discussed. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 52–54.
Case Report • Published online December 20th, 2005 • 210 KB
Ziyal IM, Bilginer B, Bozkurt G.
In this case, we report a tumor occupying 76.19% of the intracranial cavity which is diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. This tumor is inspected as one of the biggest intracranial mass lesions in literature. In such cases, the postoperative survival rate is low due to several factors such as perioperative bleeding, sudden volume changes in the intracranial cavity and intracranial hypotension. The surgical excision is open to question. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 55–56.
Brief Review • Published online December 26th, 2005 • 739 KB
Tascioglu AO, Tascioglu AB.
In this article we have tried to narrate ventricular anatomy from its start in antiquity to the transitionalists of the Renaissance. The crude drawings of the Alexandrian series can hardly be called “anatomical“. The accompanying texts consisted mostly of concepts unrelated to sketches. With the Renaissance there came an era where true knowledge, through dissections, revealed the actual structures of the ventricles and ended the unfounded arguments of ventricular function. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 57–63.
Obituary • Published online December 26th, 2005 • 112 KB
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 64.
Announcement • Published online December 26th, 2005 • 59 KB
No author available.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: 65.
Abstracts • Published online April 15th, 2005 • 1.14 MB
No author available.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2005; 4: Supplement 1.
Table of Contents [Archives]
Year: 2011; Volume: 10 • In this volume there is 1 article.
Year: 2010; Volume: 9 • In this volume there are 3 articles.
Year: 2009; Volume: 8 • In this volume there are 11 articles.
Year: 2008; Volume: 7 • In this volume there are 24 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2007; Volume: 6 • In this volume there are 26 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2006; Volume: 5 • In this volume there are 19 articles and 2 supplement.
Year: 2005; Volume: 4 • In this volume there are 21 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2004; Volume: 3 • In this volume there are 18 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2003; Volume: 2 • In this volume there are 14 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2002; Volume: 1 • In this volume there are 9 articles.